The unequivocal answer to the question of which steel is more suitable for the production of Damascus steel knife, no. It all depends on the purpose for which the knife is used. Even such “titled” became like Damascus and Damascus steel knife did not always cope well with tasks. Modern alloys generally perform better and are capable of performing a variety of functions.
The basis of any type of steel is made up of two elements – iron and carbon. The latter is responsible for the level of hardness. The higher level of carbon in the alloy composition – the harder the product will be. The best is the figure of 0.7%, but there are cases with higher levels of this element. The upper limit is set at the level of 2.14% – if you exceed this value, you get a cast, which, of course, is not suitable for the manufacture of any sheet was. Additional characteristics provide additional elements that go into the composition of the steel.
- Manganese. This Element Allows To Improve The Quality Of Metal Calcination, To Form Its Structure, And Improve The Strength.
- Chromium It Protects The Steel From Corrosion; It Will Make The Excess Metal Brittle.
- Nickel Also Confers Resistance To Corrosion And Makes The Blade More Durable.
- Molybdenum It Performs Several Tasks. The Resistance, The Calcination Capacity Is Increased, The Metal Becomes More Flexible And Less Brittle.
- Vanadium In Steel Is Responsible For The Level Of Strength And Hardenability Of The Blade.
- Silicon Is Considered To Be A Universal Supplement That Can Improve Various Characteristics Of The Metal.
In addition to the most frequently produced elements above, tungsten, nitrogen, sulfur, and some other components can be included in the alloy composition.
It should be understood that the addition of any component is only useful as long as the concentration does not exceed the maximum allowed. If this happens – the steel will simply be in poor condition, it will lose all its original properties.
Despite the importance of composition, it does not play a decisive role. The final quality also depends on the heat treatment of metals and quenching. It is the totality of all these articles and determines the presence of certain characteristics, among which the following are the key.
- Firmness That Is, The Ability Of The Blade To Withstand Considerable External Loads.
- Force. This Indicator Amateurs Sometimes Confuses Harshly, Using The Two Terms Interchangeably. However, The Two Properties Have Completely Different Meanings. Solid Sheet Can Withstand High Loads Without Deformation And Durable Resistant To The Appearance Of Cracks And Chips. Also, The Level Of Strength And Toughness Are Interconnected – Increasing One Index Decreases The Second Index Consistently.
- Corrosion Resistance. Another Important Indicator. Whenever A Knife Is Used – In Cooking, Hiking Or Hunting, It Was Often In Contact With Water (And Hunting – And Even Blood), Which Has A Negative Effect On The Working Properties Of The Blade. . Therefore, “Anticorrosive” Refers To One Of The Most Important Characteristics.
- Ability To Keep Sharpening.
- Ease Of Sharpening.
Selecting brand, which would be present if all these qualities, is impossible. Each of them are inherent in these or other properties, depending on the composition. In this case, the greater the number of inherent properties of the blade, the higher its price.
Of all the best known varieties are two – Damascus and Damascus steel. Even very far from the world of knives people heard of these alloys, items of which have been considered the most reliable, robust and durable. In addition, they have an attractive appearance thanks to their composition and special hardening, which has produced added value for customers. But not only the external appeal made of Damascus and Damascus steel blades are so popular. These types of steel and had a good performance, probably the best of its time.
Therefore, Damascus steel, which consisted of complex carbon compounds and small iron fractions, exhibited high strength, good cutting ability and flexibility. In addition, it has a specific pattern that is formed by the hardening of the blade, and a special fiber structure. A metal knife – tool is reliable and durable, it can be used both in the kitchen and in hunting or fishing.
Damascus realization has basically the same components, as any other steel – carbon and iron. In particular the flexibility and strength of the blade impart additional elements added to the alloy composition. After heat treatment of the surface of the blade, from this steel, covered interesting chaotic pattern that is the result of the mixing of the layers.
These two types of steel can be called legendary. From ancient times to the present day they were kept under a special treatment, and it is not just “technical specifications”. What Damascus metals Damascus have a rich history, there are references to them still in Russian epics and ancient Arab tales. Yes, perhaps, in those days, such blades were the most advanced weapons, but now the situation has changed.
These days you can not say that Damascus and Damascus of steel – the strongest in the world. Modern technology and up-to-date composition allowed to create alloys that are not inferior and sometimes superior in their distinguished blades characteristics. For example, almost universal stainless steel or 100H13N 95X18, it is able to meet the requirements of 98% of consumers.
Also, like any other metal, damask and damask are not only their advantages, but also disadvantages. Thus, the first of which is subject to corrosion. To protect the sheet from rust, it is necessary to make efforts – wash well and dry thoroughly after use, to cover special structures, stored in a dry place. Damascus knife itself is difficult to grind in “field conditions” – you will have to spend time and energy, and, in addition, it is necessary to choose the right tool for sharpening. First took the stone can not cope with this task.
Today, these two types of blades rarely perform any utilitarian function. They often fail to acquire as a working tool, as well as a decoration or as an exhibition in the collection of weapons. For the practical use of selected sheets of modern alloys.
Proven coated titanium sheets. Such blades are distinguished by black or gold leaf color. They have a high resistance (up to 90 HRC on the Rockwell scale), additional protection against corrosion, long wait for sharpening. An important fact – Hardness of the blade at high level of resistance is not reduced. This is the case when you can get “all at once” – and toughness and strength.
The Best Brands
modern metallurgy offers a large number of alloys with different properties. Man, far from this area, hardly distinguishes one species from another, and does not try to distinguish. You want to buy a quality knife made of good steel, which will last a long time and cope with your tasks. Today, the most popular alloys are as follows.
- M390. This Top Price For Stainless Steel Represents The Elite Group. It Is Wear-Resistant, Durable, Not Afraid Of The Influence Of External Factors, Not Subject To Oxidation, And Thus Has An Edge.
- ZDP189. The Same Applies To Elite Brands. Characterized By High Hardness And Ductility.
- CPM S35 VN. In Making This Stamp Is Steel Powder Used With Added Niobium – A Shiny Silver-Gray Metal Color. Such An Alloy Knife Has Improved Sharpness And Durability.
- ATS-34. It Is A Brand Of Japanese Origin, Characterized By High Sharpness And Sharpening Power. By Disadvantages Of Metal Are The Susceptibility To Corrosion.
- VG-10. This Steel Is Very Similar In Its Characteristics To The ATS-34. The Composition Includes A Large Amount Of Chromium And Vanadium – Elements That Increase The Strength Of The Sheet.
- 440C. This Degree Is The Most Popular, Not Only In Russia, But Also Around The World. The Composition Includes A Large Amount Of Chromium And Carbon. The Knife Made Of Such Alloy Easily Natachivaetsya And Has Good Anticorrosive Properties.
- AUS-8. Another Made Of Steel Made In Japan. Of The Benefits – Insensitivity To Corrosive Processes, But Much More Disadvantages, Including Poor Retention Of Sharpening.
The above rating does not include all known grades of steel. Identify the ones that are the most in demand and consumer confidence. In Russia, 440C steel blades gained great popularity, due to good performance and affordable price.
Middle segment alloy knives are purchased most frequently. Too expensive models not everyone can afford, and cause inexpensive (often unsubstantiated) distrust. Also, it does not always mean a high price for a good quality blade. It is better to pay attention to the working properties of alloys and their composition.
Besides said converted 440C, it is possible to assign various types, such as BG-42, AT S-34, which contains a small amount of chromium, but as much as 4% molybdenum. These alloys are known as stainless steel ball bearings. They have high resistance to wear, which distinguishes them from other brands. Good proven d2 alloy, America’s favorite producers. From the combination of the qualities of this steel it is very suitable for the production of knives practically any destination.
How To Choose?
The main selection criteria – Scope of application. From where, under what conditions a knife is used depends on the list of desirable qualities, which it should have, and the type of steel. For example, for a kitchen knife a sufficient level of strength and the ability to maintain a long routine are important. For shkurosomnogo tool that matters most is the speed and ease with which they can be sharpened.
For the same important hunting knife its cutting capacity. Carbon has this property, damascus, damask, alloy steel powder. There are some basic criteria that are equally important for any blades purpose. These include:
- Corrosion Resistance.
The high level of hardness protects the blade from external impacts and deformations. Good durability makes the knife resistant to the appearance of cracks or chips. Blade with a high resistance under load causing the needle, but not breaking. Anti-corrosion properties make the knife more durable – for water or blood, with which you often have to “meet” without harmful effects. As for the producers, there are the following companies, well established in the world market:
- “Solingen” (Germany);
- “Wenger” (Switzerland);
- “Vinkison” (England).
Positive feedback and popularity also won the Finnish, American, Swedish and Japanese production knives. Among the domestic manufacturers occupy a special position Kizlyar products and the Zlatoust plant. The modern technologies used in these companies, allowing you to create high-quality products that can compete (and sometimes superior) with foreign counterpart characteristics.
However, not all the quality of the alloy depends on its composition and production conditions. Properties such as flexibility, brittleness, smoothness, ability to blunt quickly with are directly dependent on the heat treatment of the material.
Some consumers attach great importance to the sharpness of the razor. But this is not the most important. Much more important characteristic is the durability of the blade, which depends on the amount of carbon in the composition.
You can not call some steel knife of the universal brand of which it will have all the necessary qualities. It all depends on the scope of use. It is determined what characteristics will be the key. Camping, hunting, fishing or household needs – in each case they have different critical characteristics of the blade.